Sunday, 2 June 2013

Types of Research - Definitions with explaination in Urdu

Action research is a methodology that combines action and research to examine specific questions, issues or phenomena through observation and reflection, and deliberate involvement to improve practice.
·         Action research aisa tareeqa e kaar hai jo amal aur tehqeeq ko mila deta hai (yak’ja, ikatha kr deta hai) khaas sawalaat , muam’laat ya aqaaid ki “mushaahida aur asarat ki jaanch k lye (maloom krny k lye) is tareeqa k tehat jaan boojh kr mudakhalat ki jati hai ta k practice (kaam) ko behtr bnaya ja sky.

Applied research is research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake.
… sirf  ilm me izafa k lye jan’nay ki bjay asal msaail ka hall karny k lye “applied research” ki jati hai. (amali tehqeeq)
Basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge.
Buniyadi tehqeeq= ilm me izafa k ilawa dosray fawaaid ko dekhy bghair “naya ilm hasil krnay (nai baten jan’ny) k lye tajarbaati aur tehreeri kaam karna buniyadi tehqeeq kehlati hai.
Clinical trials are research studies undertaken to determine better ways to prevent, screen for, diagnose or treat diseases.
Bimariyon se bchao, pehchaan aur tashkhees k behtar tareeqay dhoondny k lye tehqeeqi mutaliya ko clinical trial kehty hain.
Epidemiological research is concerned with the description of health and welfare in populations through the collection of data related to health and the frequency, distribution and determinants of disease in populations, with the aim of improving health.
Epi-demi-ological tehqeeq awaam ki sehat aur falah k lye – awam me bimariyon ki alamat aur phailny k mutalaq  mawaad ko ikatha karny – se ta’aluq rkhti hai.
Evaluation research is research conducted to measure the effectiveness or performance of a program, concept or campaign in achieving its objectives.
Jaiza ki – tashkheesi tehqeeq Kisi mansoobay, tasawur ya tehreek ki us k maqasid k hasool k silsilay me us k  faiday aur kaar kardagi ki paimaish k lye ki jati hai.
Literature review is a critical examination, summarization, interpretation or evaluation of existing literature in order to establish current knowledge on a subject.
Kisi mazmoon me maujooda ilm qaim krny k lye “maojood (dastiyab) adab” k tanqeedi jaiza, bayaan, aur  tashkhees ko literature review kehty hain
Qualitative research is research undertaken to gain insights concerning attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviors of individuals to explore a social or human problem and include methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation research and case studies.
Muashrati ya insaani masail ki wazahat k lye afraad k khayalat, rawaiye, aqaaid aur bartao hasil krny (pta chalaany) k lye qualitative tehqeq ki jati hai, is me tafseeeli interview, mushahdaat aur tehqeeqi maqaaly shamil hain  (meyaari)
Quantitative research is research concerned with the measurement of attitudes, behaviors and perceptions and includes interviewing methods such as telephone, intercept and door-to-door interviews as well as self-completion methods such as mail outs and online surveys.
Aaraa,  rawaiyon aur atwaaar ki pemaaish (jaanch) k lye quantitative tehqeeq ki jati hai is me interview shamil hain.(miqdari )
Service or program monitoring and evaluation  involves collecting and analyzing a range of processes and outcome data in order to assess the performance of a service or program and to determine if the intended or expected results have been achieved.
Types of research projects
Descriptive research project --
Descriptive research projects are designed to provide systematic information about social phenomena. The researcher does not begin with hypotheses, but is likely to develop hypotheses after collecting data.  Systematic information means careful selection of the units studied and careful measurement of each variable.
          Example: The Center for Disease Control report, "Tobacco Use among High School Students" (in Reader) is Descriptive. The Editorial Note at the end shows that it also is policy research.
Exploratory research --
In exploratory research, the researcher explores setting, social phenomena. Some descriptive or explanatory studies begin with exploration.  This exploratory work provides background information needed to plan descriptive or explanatory research. Other research projects are entirely exploratory, even though they can go on for years.
         Example:  When you try out an operational definition, you are doing exploratory research. Ethnographic studies usually are considered explanatory

 Explanatory research projects --
Here the researcher begins with ideas about the possible causes of a social phenomenon, i.e., the researcher develops hypotheses before collecting any data. The researcher then plans a study that can provide systematic evidence supporting (or not supporting) these initial ideas about cause. The data collected also provide systematic description.
         Examples:   Harrell's study of pedestrian behavior and North's study of music and on-hold waiting.
Evaluation research or policy-related research --
Evaluation research is designed so that the findings will provide information useful in for decisions about public policy or private issues. Each kind of research project described above also can be evaluation research.  [In making policy decisions, findings from other kinds of research (i.e., research not initially designed for policy purposes) also are useful and used.]
        Examples: Harrell's study, North's study, and the study of tobacco use are all policy-related

Kinds of Research

Scientists who study the brain do so for many reasons. For some, the opportunity to study the most complex living structure in the known universe is itself an exciting quest. So much is still unknown about brain function and development. 

For others, the promise of identifying an underlying cause or treatment for a specific disease, whether it is Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia, paralysis or epilepsy, traumatic brain injury or autism, drives their daily work. Often, it is a passionate combination of wanting to serve society by investigating a disease, while pursuing exciting and important themes that are broader than any single disorder.
In science, three major terms are used when describing different approaches to research: “basic research,” “clinical research,” and “translational research.” While there are no strict boundaries between them, there are differences. All three are important scientific research priorities that make up the continuum of scientific investigation.

Basic research

Many great discoveries begin with the question, “I wonder why?” This is the foundation of a kind of research called basic research. It is also referred to as discovery science. This curiosity-driven research leads to discoveries that contribute to a greater understanding of basic biology. Basic research advances scientific knowledge and medical innovation by expanding our understanding of genes, molecules, cells, systems, and complex behaviors.
This basic understanding often forms the foundation for other researchers to make future, unrelated discoveries, resulting in progress on a disease or disorder that may never have been directly intended. In neuroscience, examples include the discoveries of fluorescent proteins in jellyfish, the hormone lepton, and critical periods for sensory development, all of which today hold promise for human applications.

Clinical research

Other research has a more defined target: identifying factors that contribute to a particular disease, or investigating a potential therapy that could help patients. These studies focus on the causes of human illness and are called clinical research. Scientists who conduct clinical research often compare the brains of healthy people with brains affected by disease or injury. They also evaluate the effectiveness of early screenings, preventions, or treatments. Increasingly, this type of research also tries to identify risk factors that are linked to disease vulnerability.

Translational research

When findings from basic research are applied to clinical challenges, this is known as translational research. It could be described as a bridge between the laboratory bench and the patient’s bedside. Scientists are often encouraged by funders and peers alike to identify the possible clinical applications their fundamental research may eventually have.   
One leading researcher has described research with an analogy to engine repair. When you get your car fixed, the mechanic has an instruction book with information about different parts of your car — how they work, how they connect to one another, and what to do when a part breaks. The mechanic uses that instruction manual to fix the car. 
When it comes to biology, including neuroscience, researchers and clinicians are still writing that instruction manual. Scientists and clinicians are figuring out how cells and systems work and go awry. They strive to understand how cells connect to one another and what that means for treatments, as well as how those treatments could affect other body functions. And they continue to learn what to do when systems “break” or function differently than intended. 
Over decades and centuries scientists and clinicians have made great progress in understanding how our bodies work and how to improve and repair them. Neuroscientists have done the same with brain research. But there is a lot we don’t know. All kinds of research — basic, clinical, and translational — contribute to this understanding. Sometimes progress is made through rigorous planning, laid out through formal research programs. Often, science advances through serendipity that creates unexpected but important surprises. These reveal new understanding for further investigation, and, ultimately, new opportunities for application to health and disease. The three approaches to research can be viewed as a continuum. Novel clinical breakthroughs emerge when practitioners of each approach move across the boundaries, embracing perspectives central to all three research approaches.

Data analysis method. 

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